Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport

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Complete 7 of the following:

(Any uncited work has been provided by me)

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Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: My Experience & Conclusion

If you live in South Mumbai, driving up to the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is an ‘experience,’ especially at night.

[1] The Queen’s Necklace
As you make your way to the airport, you cross Marine Drive, or the Queen’s necklace, as it is called due to the string of lights that create the image of a pearl chain at night. A popular spot for people of all ages to for enjoy a walk or just sit and take in the sea breeze. Marine Drive connects Cuffe Parade to Breach Candy, shortening the time it would take to drive to the airport. Once you get through Worli, you are met with the majestic Bandra-Worli Sealink, a transea bridge, which provides you with a beautiful view of the Mumbai skyline.

[2] Bandra-Worli Sea Link
[3] Bandra-Worli Sea Link at night
[4] Bandra-Worli Sea Link Cables
Finally, when the car first pulled into the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, I was floored. India is a culturally diverse country teeming with architecture from both present and centuries past, but I have never seen a modern piece of architecture as grand and majestic. Lit up in the distance, I could see tall, white, towering pillars rising from the ground canopied by a massive roof.

Image result for chhatrapati shivaji terminal 2 airport
[5] Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
[6] Drop-off Area
Pulling into the airport I could admire the pillars and immediately recognized their resemblance to India’s national bird, the peacock (though the white color of the concrete is more like a peahen, a multicolored pillar probably would not have looked as sophisticated).

peacock.gif
[7] मोर
I could continue ad nauseam about the interior of the airport, but since I’ve already covered that, I would like to talk about what aspect of this building impressed me the most.

THE LIGHTS

In India, most international flights happen at night, due to international flight time scheduling being centered around convenience to major European and American airports. So, if you’ve ever visited this airport, chances are that you have seen it in its ultimate form, a grand showcase of light reminiscent of all the fireworks during the Indian festival of Diwali. The warm and bright yellow lights scattered throughout the airport makes it feel cozy, and almost prepares you for a long night’s journey.

Image result for chhatrapati shivaji terminal 2 airport
[8] Check-in counters
[9] Diwali lamp decorations

If you look at the images above, you will see a lot of floral patterns. The repeated motif of flowers once again reflects an emblem of India, its national flower – the lotus.

Image result for preciosa lighting lotus
[10] Lotus Lights by Preciosa
Image result
[11] Terminal Lounge
As soon as I saw these lights, I quite forgot about having to trek through airport security and duty-free before finally reaching my terminal. These lights are so beautiful in-person, more than a picture could ever depict. Not only are these lights intricately designed lotus, they represent the various stages of blooming of the flower. Below is an extract from their website:

“CREATING A METAPHOR

The exceptionally complex design of the lights was inspired by a lotus flower with its petals in different stages of bloom, from closed to blossoming to fully open. A hand-blown “open hourglass” piece sixty centimeters in height, the production of which requires exceptionally skilled and experienced glassblowers, forms each light’s center. Equally difficult, the flower’s petals are made of naturally finished brushed aluminum that had be laser-cut and shaped to perfectly express the designers’ vision.” [9]

I believe that these lights in combination with the pillars make the building the architectural marvel that it is. The tall pillars of the peacock represent India’s ability to stand tall on an international level, and the blooming lotuses represent its progress as a nation, and the beauty of this diverse country. At least, that’s what I like to believe. Each corner of this building gave me something to appreciate. This building was masterfully crafted to give passengers the full experience of an airport in a linear and straightforward manner, but it was designed to be a piece art and architecture, to show the world what India is all about. My first experience at the airport was an enjoyable one, but in hindsight I realized that while this building stands as a testament to Indian pride, the project was outsourced to an American company. Can they really capture our culture? Well I think they did a pretty good job with it.

 

(As a sidenote: The walk back from the terminal to baggage claim is way too long, because of the shape of the building).

 


Citations:

[1] Vasanwala, Batul. “10 Unique Facts About Marine Drive In Mumbai.” Yatra. N.p., 12 Oct. 2016. Web. 26 Sept. 2017. <https://www.yatrablog.com/10-unique-facts-about-marine-drive-in-mumbai&gt;.

[2] Wikipedia contributors. “Bandra–Worli Sea Link.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 Sep. 2017. Web. 27 Sep. 2017 <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CiteThisPage&page=Bandra%E2%80%93Worli_Sea_Link&id=799630373&gt;

[3] ibid.

[4] ibid.

[5] N.a. “Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2.” ArchiExpo. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. , <http://projects.archiexpo.com/project-25828.html.&gt;

[6] ibid.

[7] Khan, Shehab. “Entire village hunting for killer of favourite peacock.” The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 04 Oct. 2016. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://www.citationmachine.net/bibliographies/230480470?new=true&gt;

[8] “Press releases.” Cathay Pacific Airways shifts to the new International Terminal 2 at Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://www.cathaypacific.com/cx/en_IN/about-us/press-room/press-release/2014/csia-new-international-terminal2-mumbai.html&gt;

[9] By Tapas1978, Dreamstime Photograph, Dream Photograph By Calee Allen, Photograph By Jupiterimages Photolibrary Gety Images, Shutterstock Photograph By Photobank, Dreamstime Photograph By Murali Nath, Dreamstime Photograph By Nah Ting Feng, and Dreamstime Photograph by Kaphoto. “Diwali – Festival of Lights.” Kids’ Games, Animals, Photos, Stories, and More. N.p., 23 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/explore/diwali/#diwali_candles.jpg>

[10] N.a.”Mumbai Airport India.” Preciosa Lighting. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://preciosalighting.com/unique-installations/mumbai-airport&gt;

[11] N.a. “Nueva Terminal.” Blog sobre negocios en India – INDOLINK Consulting. N.p., 25 Feb. 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://indolinkspanish.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/nueva-terminal-world-class-para-el-aeropuerto-de-bombay/&gt;

 

 

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Their Experience

My first impression of Mumbai Airport was of pure awe. The attention to detail was clearly evident in the rounded peacock feather/tail shaped ceiling. The tall support beams which connected to the ceiling also resembled palm trees. The entirety of the airport, in many ways, clearly mixed in the rich cultural history of India along with the new, contemporary India. The open concept of the airport gave it a modern feel, but also gave enough space to display the cultural identities that India possesses. The artwork and artifacts along the walls gives travelers lessons in history and a glimpse of the artistic contributions from different parts of India.

(Courtesy compilation of my uncle, aunt, and cousin)

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Architects – Skidmore, Owing & Merrill LLP

 

Image result for som
[1] Logo
SOM or Skidmore, Owing & Merrill LLP is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. [X]

[2 & 3] Pillar and the Peacock

Their website (SOM) is a great source of information for all their architectural projects. But, one of my library sources also included a nice essay on SOM, which I thought was a good read, so I am going to talk about what I learnt from it.

IMAG0048
[4] Essay A + U Architecture
What I learnt:

  1.  The construction of any building is a collaboration. You have the architects, the engineers, the interior designers, urban planners, and the construction workers. If any one of them fail, the final product of the building will more than likely be a failure, therefore I conclude that they are all equally important.
  2. Buildings should be designed with context. Be it the context of the era, it’s surrounding, the culture of the country, and so on, designing with context, improves the quality of the design.
  3. SOM is an organization founded on TRUST and COLLABORATION. This is reflected in the way they work and the buildings they create. At SOM structure is more than a “solution.” Good structures are based on cohesive ideas that are clear, simple, and economical, and efficient. “There should be a clear hierarchy that guides design and when appropriate, the expression of the building.”

Citations:

[1] “Home.” SOM. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://www.som.com/&gt;

[2] Besjak Charles, Biswas Preetam, Thewis Alexandra, Sweeney Raymond, Chaudhuri Damayanti. “Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Integrated Terminal Building.” SOM. Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2017.<http://www.som.com/ideas/research/chhatrapati_shivaji_international_airport__integrated_terminal_building&gt;

[3] ibid.

N.a. “Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2 – Structural Engineering.” SOM. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://www.som.com/projects/chhatrapati_shivaji_international_airport__terminal_2__structural_engineering&gt;

N.a. “Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2.” SOM. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://www.som.com/projects/chhatrapati_shivaji_international_airport__terminal_2&gt;

[4] F Baker, William. “Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2, Mumbai, India, 2014 : [One SOM].” A + U Architecture and Urbanism. 533 (2014): 78. Print.

[X] Wikipedia contributors. “Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Sep. 2017. Web. 28 Sep. 2017 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skidmore,_Owings_%26_Merrill&gt;

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Walkthrough In Video

 

 

Something I noticed was that the experiences of both passengers were relatively the same. Unlike larger international airports such as the Frankfurt airport which has several terminals interconnected by train, the path through the Mumbai airport is a fairly linear one. This ties into the straightforward layout of the building. Every time you go there you will see the exact same things in the exact same order. While taking away from the general awe of the building once you have already seen it, this layout is much for functional for an airport and more convenient to its passengers.


Citations:

Made in Bombay. “Walkthrough Mumbai Airport (BOM) | CSIA.” YouTube. YouTube, 14 Dec. 2015. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjyetvJUX9o&gt;
FlightTravels. “Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2 Glimpse.” YouTube. YouTube, 21 Dec. 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=deqvvn_WHyM&gt;

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Recorded Interview

The video above documents an interview with CH2MHill Program Manager Sikander Jain. The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is the heart of modernization in India built with the intent ensure that the people of Mumbai would begin to experience a strengthened and heightened service even while the airport was being built. There were many constraints when building the airport. Asides from land constraints, there were air constraints  as they were building the airport while the Terminal 1 of the airport was still in operation. This required a lot of cooperation with air and land authorities and the government, much like the airport itself was a collaboration between SOM, L&T, CH2MHill, GVK, and MIAL all responsible for different aspects of the building.

Some numbers:

40 million passenger capacity annually

4.3 million square feet facility

4 levels

1300 meters of travellators

75 elevators and escalator

An elevated access roadway – 3 km

Car park for 5200 cars

And the largest indoor garden and art program in a terminal facility


Citations:

CH2M. “Mumbai’s Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, India – 720p.” YouTube. YouTube, 14 Feb. 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFyfv1wr22s&gt;

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport : Google Earth

Google Earth View

Screenshot (64)
[1] Google Earth View
Screenshot (63)
[2] Google Earth View 2
Screenshot (65)
[3] Google Earth View 3
Mumbai is a metropolitan port city set against the against the Arabian Sea. Mumbai has long been a center for India’s trade and commerce with the rest of the world. The time had come for an airport of a caliber that represented Mumbai as a city.

And thus, the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport was built. This building is situated in Bandra, the commercial and finance district in the north of Mumbai. The setting is completely urban, as you can see the hotels and the residential houses surrounding the airport.

If you are travelling to the airport from the south of Mumbai, you generally take the Sea Link, a transea bridge that reduces the travel time to the airport by 40 minutes. The bridge is an architectural marvel in its own right, elevating the sense of grandeur as you approach the airport.

Screenshot (66)
[4] Sea Link
Screenshot (67)
[5] Sea Link 2
Provided below is the aerial view you would see when landing in the airport. You are able to see Mumbai, and appreciate the hills, and sea in conjunction with the developing parts of the city that lie close to the airport. A few miles away from the airport is a slum area that lines a hill with blue tarp, that you can also see from the plane. I find it interesting that India is one of those countries in the world, where the disparity of wealth is so large, that you will find is a mutlimillion dollar airport in close proximity to a slum.

 

 


Citations:

Google Earth. Google, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://earth.google.com/web/@19.09522282,72.87326798,12.83729702a,3465.61144593d,35y,-0h,0t,0r&gt;

Silent Killer 07. “Arrived at Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, INDIA..!!” YouTube. YouTube, 18 Feb. 2017. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sxba_OJnGIs&gt;

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: The Interior

WALKING THROUGH THE AIRPORT

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The lighting panels above the check-in have a floral theme that will be carried out throughout the airport.
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There are statues and other pieces of art randomly scattered throughout the airport.
Mumbai T2 Airport Terminal 1
[1] Another interesting feature, as could be seen in the previous image, is that the pillars extend to the floor below. This floor is solely dedicated to arrivals. So even when you arrive at the airport you get to appreciate the magnificence of the pillars and the canopied ceiling.
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Security line at immigration
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More floral lighting
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Clever design – you are forced to walk straight through the duty-free area after security
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You then exit duty-free into the food area
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Businesses such as foreign renatable sim card companies benefit from such areas at airports
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Pretty seats
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More floral patterns in the First and Business class lounge
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The First and Business Class lounge
Related image
[2] Finally you just wait at the terminals for your plane to arrive

Citations:

[1] N.a. “Mumbai T2 Airport Terminal – India Building.” e-Architect, 28 May 2017, http://www.e-architect.co.uk/india/mumbai-t2-airport-terminal. Accessed 29 Sept. 2017. <https://www.e-architect.co.uk/india/mumbai-t2-airport-terminal&gt;

[2] N.a. “Nueva Terminal.” Blog sobre negocios en India – INDOLINK Consulting. N.p., 25 Feb. 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <https://indolinkspanish.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/nueva-terminal-world-class-para-el-aeropuerto-de-bombay/&gt;

(Un-cited pictures provided by me)

 

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Library Sources, Photographs, and Drawings

  • Technical images:

Site_Plan
[1] Airport Aerial View
Schematic_Section
[2] Airport Sideview
C:V I J A Y   K A D A MT2 COLOR PLANTerminal 2 Functional Pla
[3] Level 4
C:V I J A Y   K A D A MT2 COLOR PLANTerminal 2 Functional Pla
[4] Level 3
C:V I J A Y   K A D A MT2 COLOR PLANTerminal 2 Functional Pla
[5] Level 2
C:V I J A Y   K A D A MT2 COLOR PLANTerminal 2 Functional Pla
[6] Level 1
Baggage_Claim_Hall_Ceiling
[7] Baggage Claim
 

  • Exterior:

Mumbai_70_(L1008968)2
[7] Concrete pillars over steel frame
Mumbai_71_(L1009013)
[8] Concrete Pillars repeat within the building
Mumbai_MIAL_04_(IMG_1667EDIT)
[9] In the shape of a peacock tail
 

Headhouse_Roof_Structure_copia
[10] Steel Frame providing the underlying structure to the entire building
Construction_Process_02
[11] Steel Frame 2
Construction_Process_01
[12] Steel Frame Aerial View (the rounded dome shapes are where the pillars are to be placed)

  • Library Print Sources

It is difficult to put into a few sentences what these journals have taken several pages to explain, but simply put, all sources acknowledge the airport as a symbol of India. They have talked about the structure and shape that make it an architectural marvel, the coffered canopy roof being the main feature of all sources. The sources detail the steel frame which provides the backbone to the airport and upon which the white ‘peacock’ pillars and roof have been built. The conclusion of all sources is best put by the following quote from L’ARCA International, As the terminal celebrates a new, high-tech identity for Mumbai, the structure is imbued with responses to the local setting, history and, culture.

  • [13] Ein Baldachin für Mumbai – Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2 = A baldachin for Mumbai – Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2, [SOM}.
    Author:
    Besjak, Charles
    Journal:
    Detail : Zeitschrift für Architektur & Baudetail & Einrichtung
    Date:
    10/01/2016
    Volume: V2016
    Issue: 4-6
    Page: 604 – 610

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  • [14] Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2, Mumbai, India, 2014 : [One SOM].
    Journal:
    A + U Architecture and Urbanism
    ISSN:
    0389-9160
    Date:
    02/01/2015
    Issue: 533
    Page: 64 – 79   (from the back because it’s in Japanese)

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  • [15] Chhatrapati Shivaji international airport terminal 2, Mumbai, India: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
    Journal:
    L’ARCA International
    ISSN:
    1027-460X
    Date:
    11/01/2014
    Issue: 121
    Page: 54 – 61

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  • Drawing
IMAG0140~2
Drawing of Aerial view, Front view, and a close-up of the pillar

Citations:

[1] “Gallery of Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2 / SOM – 1.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017. <http://www.archdaily.com/477107/chhatrapati-shivaji-international-airport-terminal-2-som/52fd9055e8e44e3cd0000122-chhatrapati-shivaji-international-airport-terminal-2-som-photo&gt;

[2] ibid.

[3] ibid.

[4] ibid.

[5] ibid.

[6] ibid.

[7] ibid.

[8] ibid.

[9] ibid.

[10] ibid.

[11] ibid.

[12] ibid.

[13] Besjak, Charles. “Ein Baldachin für Mumbai – Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2 = A baldachin for Mumbai – Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2, [SOM}.” Detail : Zeitschrift für Architektur & Baudetail & Einrichtung. V2016. 4-6 (10/01/2016): 604-610. Print.

[14] F. Baker, William. Sarkisian, Mark.”Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2, Mumbai, India, 2014 : [One SOM].” A U Architecture and Urbanism. 533 (2014): 64-79. Print.

[15] N.a. “Chhatrapati Shivaji international airport terminal 2, Mumbai, India: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.” L’ARCA International 121 (11/01/2014): 54-61. Print

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport: Purpose, Program, and Users of the Building

[1] Waiting to Check-in
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Airport Terminal 2 is better known as the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport. It is Mumbai’s means of connecting this small port city to the rest of the country and the rest of the world.

Purpose of the building:

The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport serves as a connection to a network of airports across the world. The main purpose of an airport is to provide a space for airplanes to dock and take-off, and serve as a terminal for passenger movement.

Program of the building:

The building has been designed to serve the purpose of an airport and additionally be a source of commerce through its duty-free and restaurant services.

Users of the building:

As flights continue to get cheaper, the airport serves as host to a diverse range of people from different socioeconomic backgrounds who use the airport to catch a flight for either business or leisure purposes.


Citations:

[1] Soubhik, Mitra. “Mumbai’s international airport four times more crowded than others.” Hindustan Times, 3 May 2016,  Accessed 28 Sept. 2017. <www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai/mumbai-s-international-airport-four-times-more-crowded-than-others/story-vxgo6gii2AbmG3kqxXb8nM.html>